Ben Kneppers, Damon Birchfield, Maggie Lawton.
The report provides an initial analysis of the relationship between energy use and reticulated water supply and wastewater treatment. A literature study was supplemented by energy and water use data from four distinct reticulated water systems (Waitakere, Palmerston North, Kapiti and Nelson). The data was analysed and considered for energy use and energy efficiency and consideration given to how improvements could be made.
The research highlights the operational energy component of urban water systems, recognising that this factor should be given more weight in the design of reticulated water systems as energy costs rise. It considers why and how the urban water infrastructure could be modified to be more resource efficient and resilient, now and in the future, and signals that a water demand management approach has benefits in a reduction of both water and energy costs.